What colour change occurs in the Potassium manganate (VII) solution.##
Purple to colourless (pale brown) (=1 mark).
An impure sample of Iron weighing 0.22g was dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid. The resulting solution required 34.6cm of Potassium manganate (VII) of concentration 0.02mol dm in a titration exercise. The following reactions take place:
Fe + 2H Fe + H
5 Fe + MnO + 8H 5Fe + Mn + 4HO Calculate the number of moles of MnO used in the titration.
Hint: Use relationship
0.02 x 0.0346 = number of moles of MnO (=1 mark)
0.000692 = number of moles of MnO (=1 mark)
Calculate the number of moles of Fe oxidised by theMnO . Calculate the number of moles of MnO used in the titration.
Fereacts with MnO in ratio of 5:1
Number of moles of Fe = 5 x 0.000692 (=1 mark)
Number of moles of Fe = 0.00346 (=1 mark)
Calculate the number of grammes of Fe ions used in the titration.
Hint: Use relationship
0.00346 x 56 = mass (=1 mark)
Mass = 0.19376g (=1 mark)
Calculate the percentage purity of the original sample of Iron.
1. the importance of giving children and young people full attention when listening to them and how you demonstrate this through body language, facial expression, speech and gesture
2. why it is important to give all children and young people the opportunity to be heard and how you do this in a group
3. an outline of how children/young people’s communication skills develop within the age range 0-16 years
4. why it is important to give children and young people sufficient time to express themselves in their own words
5. why it is important to help children and young people make choices and how you can assist them to do this
6. the key features of effective communication and why it is important to model this when interacting with adults, children and young people
7. the main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with children and young people
8. how to demonstrate that you value adults’ views and opinions and why it is important to the development of positive relationships
9. communication difficulties that may exist and how these can be overcome
10. how to cope with disagreements with adults
11. why it is important to reassure adults of the confidentiality of shared information and the limits of this
12. organisational policy regarding information exchange
13. the importance of communicating positively with children, young people and families
14. how children and young people’s ability to communicate can affect their behaviour.
== == ==
STL61 Contribute to positive relationships
Glossary of terms used in this unit Adults Adults you meet at work. This will vary according to your role and responsibility, but may include one or more of: colleagues, visitors to the setting and members of children/young people’s families.
Children and young people Children and young people who you work with, except where otherwise stated.
Listen Paying attention to what the child/young person or adult is communicating in order to respond appropriately. Listening includes negotiated and agreed alternative methods of communication in situations where there may be hearing difficulties.
Language Includes signing, symbols and other non-verbal language. Positive relationships Relationships that benefit the children/young people and the children/young people’s ability to participate in and benefit from the setting.
STL61 Contribute to positive relationships
61.1 Interact with and respond to children
You need to:
1. show children/young people you are paying attention and listening to them
2. use a considerate and sympathetic approach whilst paying attention and listening to children/young people
3. allow children/young people to express themselves in their own time, using their own words or alternative communication
4. ensure that all children/young people are allowed to express themselves and are acknowledged
5. accept and acknowledge children/young people’s expression of feelings
6. ask children/young people questions to confirm your understanding of their language and expressions.
61.2 Interact with and respond to adults
You need to:
1. give adults your full attention when they are communicating with you
2. demonstrate that you have understood them
3. respond confidently, in a way which shows you have listened to their views with care and attention
4. clarify any misunderstandings
5. make suggestions and give information when requested.
STL61 Contribute to positive relationships
61.3 Communicate with children
You need to:
1. communicate clearly, in ways that the child/young person will understand
2. use language and actions that show children/young people that their views, feelings and opinions have been listened to with care and attention
3. help children/young people to express their needs and make choices
4. demonstrate your understanding of children/young people’s preferred ways of communicating
5. encourage children/young people to use different communication methods
6. model positive communication skills for children/young people
61.4 Communicate with adults
You need to:
1. approach adults with courtesy and respect, using preferred names
2. value adults’ individual needs and preferences
3. exchange information with adults in line with agreed practice
4. use communication methods that are appropriate to adults
5. adapt the ways in which you communicate when difficulties are experienced.
why is it important to give children sufficient time to express themselves in their own words
It is important that children are given the time to express themselves in their own time as this builds confidence and self esteem. Rushing the child and finishing their sentences for them may cause them to become reliant on others to speak on behalf of them. Listening to a child effectively allows the child to speak freely without feeling pressured. When children feel they have all the time in the world to express themselves they will feel comfortable to talk freely which helps to develop communication and language skills. Giving a child time to express themselves will also build a positive relationship with the child as they will feel they can trust you and will be able to confide in you if needed. Children will use their imagination and be as creative as they can be, if they are allowed the time. When a child is talking as a practitioner you can observe and record their development by listening and acknowledging what they are saying.
Hi, Because a child's 'feelings' are IMPORTANT and they must be acknowledged and accepted, no matter how 'bad' they may be. When I was little, I'd say 'I feel ... ' and my mother would say 'No, you don't, you feel ...' and she'd say the EXACT OPPOSITE. I KNEW what I felt was 'right' (I was feeling it) and felt that my 'feelings' didn't 'count' and that no one 'cared' about me because I was consistently told 'what to feel, how to feel' and never listened to. When my kids were young, my second son was really angry at me one day and shouted "I hate you!" I looked at him straight in the eye, and said "Good ... that means I'm doing my job correctly." He looked perplexed, and said "You're not mad at me for hating you?" I said I wasn't angry, that 'hate' is a feeling that REQUIRES love to feel, and that he'd 'figure it out' when he got older. He looked at me again, then put his arms around me (he was already taller than me) and said "I do love you, Mom ... but sometimes you are really FRUSTRATING. I was really angry at you, and now I'm not just 'okay' with you, but I actually do LOVE you even more. I'm going to go think hard about that for awhile." And he went into his room and put himself on a 'long time out' all by himself. THAT is why a child should be given 'sufficient time to express themselves in their own words.' They LEARN FASTER AND BETTER than when they are 'told what and how to feel.' And the 'feeling' they do have is 'valid' no matter what it is ... and it's easier to 'guide' knowing that than to 'assign feelings' and ASSUME the child will do what you want (or what is needed) ...
Language development is the process by which children come to understand and communicate language during early childhood.
From birth up to the age of five, children develop language at a very rapid pace. The stages of language development are universal among humans. However, the age and the pace at which a child reaches each milestone of language development vary greatly among children. Thus, language development in an individual child must be compared with norms rather than with other individual children. In general girls develop language at a faster rate than boys. More than any other aspect of development, language development reflects the growth and maturation of the brain. After the age of five it becomes much more difficult for most children to learn language.
Receptive language development (the ability to comprehend language) usually develops faster than expressive language (the ability to communicate). Two different styles of language development are recognized. In referential language development, children first speak single words and then join words together, first into two-word sentences and then into three-word sentences. In expressive language development, children first speak in long unintelligible babbles that mimic the cadence and rhythm of adult speech. Most children use a combination these styles.
Language development begins before birth. Towards the end of pregnancy, a fetus begins to hear sounds and speech coming from outside the mother's body. Infants are acutely attuned to the human voice and prefer it to other sounds. In particular they prefer the higher pitch characteristic of female voices. They also are very attentive to the human face, especially when the face is talking. Although crying is a child's primary means of communication at birth, language immediately begins to develop via repetition and imitation.
Between birth and three months of age, most infants acquire the following abilities:
* seem to recognize their mother's voice * quiet down or smile when spoken to * turn toward familiar voices and sounds * make sounds indicating pleasure * cry differently to express different needs * grunt, chuckle, whimper, and gurgle * begin to coo (repeating the same sounds frequently) in response to voices * make vowel-like sounds such as "ooh" and "ah"
Between three and six months, most infants can do the following:
* turn their head toward a speaker * watch a speaker's mouth movements * respond to changes in a tone of voice * make louder sounds including screeches * vocalize excitement, pleasure, and displeasure * cry differently out of pain or hunger * laugh, squeal, and sigh * sputter loudly and blow bubbles * shape their mouths to change sounds * vocalize different sounds for different needs * communicate desires with gestures * babble for attention * mimic sounds, inflections, and gestures * make many new sounds, including "p," "b," and "m," that may sound almost speech-like
The sounds and babblings of this stage of language development are identical in babies throughout the world, even among those who are profoundly deaf. Thus all babies are born with the capacity to learn any language. Social interaction determines which language they eventually learn.
Six to 12 months is a crucial age for receptive language development. Between six and nine months babies begin to do the following:
* search for sources of sound * listen intently to speech and other sounds * take an active interest in conversation even if it is not directed at them * recognize "dada," "mama," "bye-bye" * consistently respond to their names * respond appropriately to friendly and angry tones * express their moods by sound and body language * play with sounds * make long, more varied sounds * babble random combinations of consonants and vowels * babble in singsong with as many as 12 different sounds * experiment with pitch, intonation, and volume * use their tongues to change sounds * repeat syllables * imitate intonation and speech sounds
Between nine and 12 months babies may begin to do the following:
* listen when spoken to * recognize words for common objects and names of family members * respond to simple requests * understand "no" * understand gestures * associate voices and names with people * know their own names * babble both short and long groups of sounds and two-to-three-syllable repeated sounds (The babble begins to have characteristic sounds of their native language.) * use sounds other than crying to get attention * use "mama" and "dada" for any person * shout and scream * repeat sounds * use most consonant and vowel sounds * practice inflections * engage in much vocal play
During the second year of life language development proceeds at very different rates in different children. By the age of 12 months, most children use "mama/dada" appropriately. They add new words each month and temporarily lose words. Between 12 and 15 months children begin to do the following:
* recognize names * understand and follow one-step directions * laugh appropriately * use four to six intelligible words, usually those starting with "b," "c," "d," and "g," although less than 20 percent of their language is comprehensible to outsiders * use partial words * gesture and speak "no" * ask for help with gestures and sounds
At 15 to 18 months of age children usually do the following:
* understand "up," "down," "hot," "off" * use 10 to 20 intelligible words, mostly nouns * use complete words * put two short words together to form sentences * chatter and imitate, use some echolalia (repetitions of words and phrases) * have 20 to 25 percent of their speech understood by outsiders
At 18 to 24 months of age toddlers come to understand that there are words for everything and their language development gains momentum. About 50 of a child's first words are universal: names of foods, animals, family members, toys, vehicles, and clothing. Usually children first learn general nouns, such as "flower" instead of "dandelion," and they may overgeneralize words, such as calling all toys "balls." Some children learn words for social situations, greetings, and expressions of love more readily than others. At this age children usually have 20 to 50 intelligible words and can do the following:
* follow two-step directions * point to parts of the body * attempt multi-syllable words * speak three-word sentences * ask two-word questions * enjoy challenge words such as "helicopter" * hum and sing * express pain verbally * have 50 to 70 percent of their speech understood by outsiders
After several months of slower development, children often have a "word spurt" (an explosion of new words). Between the ages of two and 18 years, it is estimated that children add nine new words per day. Between two and three years of age children acquire:
* a 400-word vocabulary including names * a word for most everything * the use of pronouns * three to five-word sentences * the ability to describe what they just saw or experienced * the use of the past tense and plurals * names for body parts, colors, toys, people, and objects * the ability to repeat rhymes, songs, and stories * the ability to answer "what" questions
Children constantly produce sentences that they have not heard before, creating rather than imitating. This creativity is based on the general principles and rules of language that they have mastered. By the time a child is three years of age, most of a child's speech can be understood. However, like adults, children vary greatly in how much they choose to talk.
Three to four-year-olds usually can do the following:
* understand most of what they hear * converse * have 900 to 1,000-word vocabularies, with verbs starting to predominate * usually talk without repeating syllables or words * use pronouns correctly * use three to six-word sentences * ask questions * relate experiences and activities * tell stories (Occasional stuttering and stammering is normal in preschoolers.)
Language skills usually blossom between four and five years of age. Children of this age can do the following:
* verbalize extensively * communicate easily with other children and adults * articulate most English sounds correctly * know 1,500 to 2,500 words * use detailed six to eight-word sentences * can repeat four-syllable words * use at least four prepositions * tell stories that stay on topic * can answer questions about stories
At age five most children can do the following:
* follow three consecutive commands * talk constantly * ask innumerable questions * use descriptive words and compound and complex sentences * know all the vowels and consonants * use generally correct grammar
Six-year-olds usually can correct their own grammar and mispronunciations. Most children double their vocabularies between six and eight years of age and begin reading at about age seven. A major leap in reading comprehension occurs at about nine. Ten-year-olds begin to understand figurative word meanings.
Adolescents generally speak in an adult manner, gaining language maturity throughout high school.
Language delay is the most common developmental delay in children. There are many causes for language delay, both environmental and physical. About 60 percent of language delays in children under age three resolve spontaneously. Early intervention often helps other children to catch up to their age group.
Common circumstances that can result in language delay include:
* concentration on developing skills other than language * siblings who are very close in age or older siblings who interpret for the younger child * inadequate language stimulation and one-on-one attention * bilingualism, in which a child's combined comprehension of two languages usually is equivalent to other children's comprehension of one language * psychosocial deprivation
Language delay can result from a variety of physical disorders, including the following:
* mental retardation * maturation delay (the slower-than-usual development of the speech centers of the brain), a common cause of late talking * a hearing impairment * a learning disability * cerebral palsy * autism (a developmental disorder in which, among other things, children do not use language or use it abnormally) * congenital blindness, even in the absence of other neurological impairment * Klinefelter syndrome, a disorder in which males are born with an extra X chromosome
Brain damage or disorders of the central nervous system can cause the following:
* receptive aphasia or receptive language disorder, a deficit in spoken language comprehension or in the ability to respond to spoken language * expressive aphasia, an inability to speak or write despite normal language comprehension * childhood apraxia of speech, in which a sound is substituted for the desired syllable or word
Language development is enriched by verbal interactions with other children and adults. Parents and care-givers can have a significant impact on early language development. Studies have shown that children of talkative parents have twice the vocabulary as those of quiet parents. A study from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) found that children in high-quality childcare environments have larger vocabularies and more complex language skills than children in lower-quality situations. In addition language-based interactions appear to increase a child's capacity to learn. Recommendations for encouraging language development in infants include:
* talking to them as much as possible and giving them opportunities to respond, perhaps with a smile; short periods of silence help teach the give-and-take of conversation * talking to infants in a singsong, high-pitched speech, called "parentese" or "motherese" (This is a universal method for enhancing language development.) * using one- or two-syllable words and two to three-word sentences * using proper words rather than baby words * speaking slowly, drawing-out vowels, and exaggerating main syllables * avoiding pronouns and articles * using animated gestures along with words * addressing the baby by name * talking about on-going activities * asking questions * singing songs * commenting on sounds in the environment * encouraging the baby to make vowel-like and consonant-vowel sounds such as "ma," "da," and "ba" * repeating recognizable syllables and repeating words that contain the syllable
When babies reach six to 12 months-of-age, parents should play word games with them, label objects with words, and allow the baby to listen and participate in conversations. Parents of toddlers should do the following:
* talk to the child in simple sentences and ask questions * expand on the toddler's single words * use gestures that reinforce words * put words to the child's gestures * name colors * count items * gently repeat correctly any words that the child has mispronounced, rather than criticizing the child
Parents of two to three-year-olds should do the following:
* talk about what the child and parent are doing each day * encourage the child to use new words * repeat and expand on what the child says * ask the child yes-or-no questions and questions that require a simple choice
Language development Age Activity Two months Cries, coos, and grunts. Four months Begins babbling. Makes most vowel sounds and about half of consonant sounds. Six months Vocalizes with intonation. Responds to own name. Eight months Combines syllables when babbling, such "Ba-ba." Eleven months Says one word (or fragment of a word) with meaning. Twelve months Says two or three words with meaning. Practices inflection, such as raising pitch of voice at the end of a question. Eighteen months Has a vocabulary between five and 20 words, mostly nouns. Repeats word or phrase over and over. May start to join two words together. Two years Has a vocabulary of 150–300 words. Uses I, me, and you. Uses at least two prepositions (in, on, under). Combines words in short sentences. About two-thirds of what is spoken is understandable. Three years Has a vocabulary of 900–1000 words. Uses more verbs, some past tenses, and some plural nouns. Easily handles three-word sentences. Can give own name, sex, and age. About 90% of speech is understandable. Four years Can use at least four prepositions. Can usually repeat words of four syllables. Knows some colors and numbers. Has most vowels and diphthongs and consonants p, b, m, w, and n established. Talks a lot and repeats often. Five years Can count to ten. Speech is completely understandable, although articulation might not be perfect. Should have all vowels and consonants m, p, b, h, w, k, g, t, d, n, ng, y. Can repeat sentences as long as nine words. Speech is mostly grammatically correct. Six years Should have all vowels and consonants listed above, has added, f, v, sh, zh, th, l. Should be able to tell a connected story about a picture. Seven years Should have consonants s–z, r, voiceless th, ch, wh, and soft g. Should be able to do simple reading and print many words. Eight years All speech sounds established. Carries on conversation at a more adult level. Can tell complicated stories of past events. Easily uses complex and compound sentences. Reads simple stories with ease and can write simple compositions.
SOURCE: Child Development Institute. 2004. http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com.
* encourage the child to ask questions * read books about familiar things, with pictures, rhymes, repetitive lines, and few words * read favorite books repeatedly, allowing the child to join in with familiar words * encourage the child to pretend to read * not interrupt children when they are speaking
Parents of four to six-year-olds should:
* not speak until the child is fully attentive * pause after speaking to give the child a chance to respond * acknowledge, encourage, and praise speech * introduce new words * talk about spatial relationships and opposites * introduce limericks, songs, and poems * talk about the television programs that they watch * encourage the child to give directions * give their full attention when the child initiates a conversation
Parents of six to 12-year-olds should talk to the children, not at them, encourage conversation by asking questions that require more than a yes-or-no answer, and listen attentively as the child recounts the day's activities.
Additional recommendations for parents and care-givers, by the American Academy of Pediatrics and others, include:
* talking at eye level with a child and supplementing words with body language, gestures, and facial expressions to enhance language comprehension * talking in ways that catch a child's attention * using language to comfort a child * using correct pronunciations * using expressive language to discuss objects, actions, and emotions * playing with sounds and words * labeling objects and actions with words * providing objects and experiences to talk about * choosing activities that promote language * listening carefully to children and responding in ways that let them know that they have been understood, as well as encouraging further communication * using complete sentences and adding detail to expand on what a child has said * knowing when to remain silent * reading to a child by six months of age at the latest * encouraging children to ask questions and seek new information * encouraging children to listen to and ask questions of each other
Television viewing does not promote language development.
When to Call the Doctor
Parents should call the pediatrician immediately if they suspect that their child may have a language delay or a hearing problem. Warning signs of language delay in toddlers include:
* avoiding eye contact * neither understanding nor speaking words by 18 months of age * difficulty learning nursery rhymes or simple songs * not recognizing or labeling common objects * inability to pay attention to a book or movie * poor articulation, such that a parent cannot understand the child more than 50 percent of the time
Bochner, Sandra, and Jane Jones. Child Language Development: Learning to Talk. London: Whurr Publishers, 2003.
Buckley, Belinda. Children's Communications Skills: From Birth to Five Years. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Oates, John, and Andrew Grayson. Cognitive and Language Development in Children. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.
Tsao, Feng-Ming, et al. "Speech Perception in Infancy Predicts Language Development in the Second Year of Life: A Longitudinal Study." Child Development 75, no. 4 (July/August 2004): 1067–84.
Van Hulle, Carol A., et al. "Genetic, Environmental, and Gender Effects on Individual Differences in Toddler Expressive Language." Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 47, no. 4 (August 2004): 904–12.
American Academy of Pediatrics. 141 Northwest Point Blvd., Elk Grove Village, IL 60007. Web site: www.aap.org.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Web site: .
Child Development Institute. 3528 E. Ridgeway Road, Orange, CA 92867. Web site: www.cdipage.com/index.htm.
"Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development." American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available online at www.asha.org/public/speech/development/Parent-Stim-Activities.htm (accessed December 29, 2004).
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Genishi, Celia. "Young Children's Oral Language Development." Child Development Institute. Available online at www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/oral_language_development.shtml (accessed December 29, 2004).
"How Does Your Child Hear and Talk?" American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available online at www.asha.org/public/speech/development/child_hear_talk.htm (accessed December 29, 2004).
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By Clare Carroll BSc., MSc., MIASLT, MRCSLT, National University of Ireland Galway.
Attention control is fundamental to all learning. Language learning requires a mature level of attention (Reynell, 1978). Clear stages in normal development of attention control exist according to Reynell (1978). Children progress through the stages of attention development. A child with a learning disability will need help to facilitate this progression. It is important to see what level your child is at and then focus on the activities for that level to help your child. The aim is to develop a child's attention to facilitate their potential to learn language.
We need to know:
* How much your child can listen to at any one time? * How long your child can concentrate for? * Whether spoken words, pictures, objects, or actions are most easily attended to? * Which situations are the easiest? * What their interests are? * How other people influence attending for your child?
* extreme distractibility * fleeting from one object to another * someone walking by will immediately distract them * normally in the first year of life
* concentrate on a task of his/her own choosing * will not tolerate any intervention by an adult verbal or visual * he/she may appear wilful but the attention is single channelled ignoring all external stimuli in order to concentrate * normally occurs in second year of life
* Attention remains single channelled * Cannot attend to auditory and visual stimuli from different sources i.e. cannot play and listen at the same time * Normally occurs in third year of life
* Child must still alternate his/her full attention (visual and auditory) between the speaker and the task but now does it spontaneously * Usually occurs in fourth year of life
* Child's attention is now two channelled i.e. understands verbal instructions relating to the task without stopping to listen to the speaker * Concentration span may still be short, however may be taught in a group * Stage of school readiness
* Auditory, visual and tactile channels are fully integrated * Attention is well established and sustained * Mature school entry level
* Gain attention before speaking * Simplify your vocabulary * Simplify your sentence structure by shortening your sentences, for example, "go and get your coat" to "get coat". * Use language within the child's level of understanding * Use visual prompts such as pictures, signs and gestures * Use the child's interests and experiences to help them understand * Give the child time * Encourage your child to ask if they have not understood and to ask for help * Ensure all who interact with your child are aware of the child's difficulties * Pay attention to the signals you use * ‘Pay' attention to ‘get' attention * Have a strategy for ‘getting' & ‘keeping' attention * People can't attend all the time - schedule and take breaks * Try and change the circumstances to promote attention rather than concentrating on the person's inattention
* Number of items presented to a child will depend on their memory skills * Arrangement and number of items will be affected by the child's ability to scan * Place the key word at the end of the phrase and emphasise * Gradually reduce the number of visual cues and physical prompts * Give the child time to consolidate his/her new skill through practice and reinforcement * Support the child through rewards and reinforcements
Helping a child at level 1
* Keep instructions simple and task related i.e. using key words * Modelling by showing the child what to do * Modelling by telling the child what to do * Use prompts to gain eye contact and attention by using gestures and touch your child's arm or guide face to look at you/object/person
Helping the child at level 2
* Material rewards * Encourage attention to sounds, nursery rhymes, musical instruments * Encouraging choice between 2 to 3 objects * Ask the child to get familiar objects i.e. "I need a cup".
Helping the child at level 3
* Keep tasks short and simple * Prompt the child * Rewards must be intrinsic to the task * Clear instruction must precede the task when you have the child's full attention * Copying actions or beats on a drum * Musical statues * Leaving words out of nursery rhymes * Pausing during well known stories * Matching sounds to objects and pictures
Helping the child at level 4
* Give the child time to focus his/her attention before giving instructions * Prompt if the child gets stuck * Alert child by calling his/her name * Make child aware of your physical presence before speaking * Praise and encouraging keeping to the task at hand * Standing behind him and comment
Helping the child at level 5
* Encourage child to work alongside another child or small group * Include child within classroom activities with the help of an assistant to prompt the child * Simon Says, "I went to the shop and I bought...", bean bag game, Musical chairs * Increase number of objects/pictures requested
Cooper, J., Moodley, M., & Reynell, J. (1978). Helping language development: A developmental programme for children with early language handicaps. London: Edward Arnold Publishers.
Sindrey, D. (1997). Listening games for Littles. Worldplay Publications. www.wordplay.ca